Erytrocyty - červené krvinky

7.4.2012 , Kamila Burdová

erytrocyty.jpg - kopie
erytrocyty.jpg - kopie
Erytrocyty, teda červené krvinky, sú bunky unášané krvnou plazmou, ktorých hlavnou úlohou je transport kyslíku ku tkanivám. Erytrocyty tiež od tkanív späť do pľúc odvážajú oxid uhličitý. Nedostatok erytrocytov, spôsobený nesprávnou stravou alebo rôznymi ochoreniami, sa prejavuje ako anémia, teda chudokrvnosť.

Erytrocyty

Erytrocyty sú červené krvinky, teda červené krvné bunky. Vznikajú v kostnej dreni, cirkulujú s krvou a majú na svedomí jej červenú farbu. Červené krvinky na svojom povrchu nesú špeciálne znaky, podľa ktorých sa určujú krvné skupiny. V tele máme zhruba 25 biliónov erytrocytov. Neustále sa obnovujú, staré zanikajú a nové vznikajú. Život erytrocytu trvá 120 dní. Červené krvinky vznikajú v kostnej dreni rovnako ako biele krvinky a krvné doštičky. Po narodení sa erytrocyty tvoria vo všetkých kostiach, ale postupne s vekom sa aktívna červená kostná dreň mení na neaktívnu tukovú dreň, ktorá nič neprodukuje a v dospelosti preto tvorí krvné bunky iba hrudná kosť a stavce.

Vznik erytrocytov

Vznik a vývoj erytrocytov sa nazýva erytropoéza. Erytrocyty vznikajú v červenej kostnej dreni zo základnej kmeňovej bunky. Kmeňové bunky sa delia a tvoria základ pre ďalších predchodcov červených krviniek, ktoré postupne dozrievajú a vzniká nový, mladý, nezrelý erytrocyt, ktorý sa nazýva retikulocyt. Retikulocity sa vyplavujú do krvi a tam dozrejú behom 2 dní. Vznik nových erytrocytov riadi erytropoetín, teda rastový faktor, ktorý produkujú obličky podľa množstva kyslíku v krvi. Pre zdravý vznik a vývoj erytrocytov je dôležité železo, pretože patrí do hemoglobínu, následne potom vitamín B12, kyselina listová a vitamín C. Vitamín B12 a kyselina listová sú nevyhnutné pre správne delenie buniek v kostnej dreni.

Funkcia erytrocytov

Funkcia erytrocytov spočíva v ich cirkulácii krvou medzi pľúcami a bunkami všetkých tkanív tela. Bunkám prinášajú erytrocyty kyslík a miesto neho si berú oxid uhličitý, ktorý bunky produkujú ako odpad a transportujú ho do pľúc, kde sa vydýcha z tela von. Zrelé erytrocyty sú bezjadrové bunky a obsahujú veľmi dôležité červené krvné farbivo, tzv. hemoglobín, ktorý dáva krvi červenú farbu. Práve na hemoglobín sa viaže kyslík alebo oxid uhličitý. Erytrocyt je pružný, a preto sa môže rôzne deformovať, aby sa dostal aj do najužších ciev. Postupne však pružnosť stráca a je náchylnejší k poškodeniu v obehu, až sa nakoniec rozpadne v slezine. Preto je slezina nazývaná „pohrebiskom erytrocytov". Časti krviniek sa recyklujú a vytvoria základ pre ďalšie krvné bunky. Ľudské telo si takto šetrí svoj stavebný materiál.

Zmeny počtu erytrocytov

Existujú rôzne stavy, pri ktorých sa mení množstvo erytrocytov oproti normálnemu stavu. Počet erytrocytov sa buď zvyšuje a tento stav sa potom nazýva polyglobúlia. Rovnako môže počet erytrocytov v krvi klesať a potom hovoríme o anémii, slovensky chudokrvnosti.

Zvýšený počet erytrocytov

Vyšší počet erytrocytov sa objaví ako reakcia na nedostatok kyslíku v krvi. Hladinu kyslíku monitorujú obličky, ktoré pri poklese začnú tvoriť viac hormónu erytropoetínu, ktorý stimuluje tvorbu červených krviniek v kostnej dreni. Do obehu sa tak vyplaví väčšie množstvo erytrocytov. Z vyššie uvedeného vyplýva, že ku zvýšenej produkcii erytrocytov môže dôjsť aj fyziologicky, napríklad vo vyšších nadmorských výškach, kde je menší obsah kyslíku vo vzduchu. V takom prípade sa teda jedná o jednoduchú adaptačnú reakciu organizmu. Príčina zvýšenia počtu červených krviniek však môže spočívať tiež v krvnom ochorení, tzv. primárnej polycytémii, kedy sa v kostnej dreni nadmerne množia krvné bunky.

Znížený počet erytrocytov

Častejším problémom je znížený počet erytrocytov, ktorý vedie k rozvoju anémie, teda chudokrvnosti. Jedná sa o stav, kedy je erytrocytov a hemoglobínu nedostatok, a preto bunkám chýba kyslík. Príčinou tohto stavu je nedostatok železa, kyseliny listovej, erytropoetínu alebo sa môže jednať o ochorenie kostnej drene a kmeňových krvných buniek. Ďalšími dôvodmi sú zvýšené straty pri krvácaní a nadmerný rozpad erytrocytov. Krvinky sa rozpadajú rovnako pri vrodených poruchách samotnej štruktúry erytrocytu, pri infekciách, otravách alebo po niektorých liekoch.

Rizikové faktory a prejavy zmeny počtu erytrocytov

Rizikové faktory chorobnej krvotvorby sú nedostatok železa, kyseliny listovej a vitamínu B12 v strave a ďalej choroby obličiek, pri ktorých klesá produkcia erytropoetínu. Kostnú dreň môžu poškodiť tiež chemické látky, toxické zmesi, lieky, ionizujúce žiarenie alebo vírusové infekcie. Poškodená krvotvorba s nedostatkom erytrocytov v obehu sa prejaví aj na vzhľade človeka, ktorý je bledý, rýchlejšie sa unaví a zadýchava sa. Je to preto, že bunkám chýba kyslík a volajú o pomoc, čím naštartujú reakciu celého tela. Polyglobúlia, zvýšený počet erytrocytov v obehu, vedie ku zhoršeniu prúdenia krvi v obehu. To vedie k možnosti upchania ciev, krvinky sa hromadia a nemôžu sa dostať na miesto. Hlavnými príznakmi sú bolesti hlavy, závrate, pískanie v ušiach a opäť únava, pretože krv nedodáva dostatok kyslíku.

Erytrocyty a strava

Opatrením proti ochoreniu červených krviniek, ktoré môžeme ovplyvniť, je strava bohatá na vitamíny a minerály. Kyselina listová je bohato obsiahnutá v listovej zelenine, napr. špenáte, brokolici či ružičkovom keli, ďalej v pečeni a kvasniciach. Vitamín B12 prijímame s živočíšnymi produktmi v mlieku, vajciach, syre a v mäse. Jeho nedostatok môže trápiť osoby, ktoré živočíšne produkty odmietajú. Železo sa vyskytuje v strukovinách, v listovej zelenine a vnútornostiach. Vyšší príjem vitamínov a minerálov je vhodný v tehotenstve. Ako prevencia chorôb krvi je potrebné sa vyhýbať jedovatým chemikáliám a ionizačnému žiareniu. Je tiež dôležité dôsledné liečenie infekcií a všetkých ďalších chorôb, pretože sa červené krvinky pohybujú po celom tele a akákoľvek choroba ich môže ovplyvňovať. Erytrocyty majú zásadnú úlohu vo fungovaní organizmu a nie je možné ich problémy ignorovať.

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